Empirical Research on Religion & Ecology

About this bibliography

This list is intended to provide a comprehensive survey of empirical research into religion and environmental action (for lack of better terminology). The reader will find that this includes a large range of peer-reviewed journal articles in social scientific and religious studies journals, but this list also includes a smaller group of monographs in which original empirical research plays a part and articles or chapters which discuss methodological approaches for empirical studies in religion and ecology.

Abstracts included here are produced for an English-speaking audience, but the bibliography is meant to include research in any language. It you notice any errors or missing data, or if you are aware of any research that is not represented here, please send us an email with a citation, a PDF (if you’re the author), and an abstract (if possible) and we’ll be quite glad to include it here. Keeping in mind that this is a diverse discipline straddling both humanities and social sciences, please do note that many very fine studies in religion and ecology aren’t included here because they lack a substantial or original discussion of empirical research.

This bibliography was originally generated to support our empirical work in Scottish churches for the Ancestral Time project and is a work in progress. Over the next year, it will include a variety of research outputs related to our own project research. I also mean to update the list in the coming months so that readers can sort and filter by specific details of each study (sample size, details of research subject etc.). A limited set of these are already represented with the “tag cloud” below. Any feedback is most welcome and we will continue to add new research to this list as it becomes available.

Thanks are also in order to Anthony J. Blasi who maintains the ARDA Sociology of Religion Searchable Bibliographic Database which provided several of the items included below. The dissertation (listed below under 2011) by Martine Vonk provides a useful  summary of data involved in empirical studies in Appendix A of her dissertation which was also consulted for this bibliography.

Please get in touch if you’d like to obtain this bibliography in an electronic format. Also, this list is replicated on CiteULike, Mendeley and Zotero for those who are interested in viewing there.

The Bibliography

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By clicking on any of the tags listed directly below you can filter this list by locations studied, methodologies employed (this is not yet a comprehensive list), or survey instruments used. You can also use the drop-down boxes below to filter the list by a variety of elements including date, author, or type.

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2015

Berry, Evan (2015): Devoted to nature : the religious roots of American environmentalism. 2015, ISBN: 0520285735. (Type: Book | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2014

Jones, Robert; Cox, Daniel; Navarro-Rivera, Juhem (2014): Believers, sympathizers, & skeptics: Why americans are conflicted about climate change, environmental policy, and science. PPRI & AAR 2014. (Type: Technical Report | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Clements, John; McCright, Aaron; Xiao, Chenyang (2014): Green Christians? An empirical examination of environmental concern within the US general public. In: Organization & Environment, 27 (1), pp. 85-102, 2014. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Clements, John; Xiao, Chenyang; McCright, Aaron (2014): An Examination of the ``Greening of Christianity'' Thesis Among Americans, 1993-2010. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53 (2), pp. 373-391, 2014. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey, USA)

2013

Nicinska, Justyna (2013): Religious Environmental Groups And Global Climate Change Politics In The United States And The United Kingdom: What Motivates Activism?. 2013. (Type: PhD Thesis | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: UK, USA)
Wieren, Gretel Van (2013): Restored to Earth: Christianity, Environmental Ethics, and Ecological Restoration. Georgetown University Press, 2013. (Type: Book | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Berry, Evan (2013): Religious environmentalism and environmental religion in America. In: Religion Compass, 7 (10), pp. 454-466, 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Johnston, Lucas (2013): Religion and sustainability : social movements and the politics of the environment. Equinox, Sheffield; Bristol, CT, 2013, ISBN: 1908049820. (Type: Book | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Barker, David; Bearce, David (2013): End-times theology, the shadow of the future, and public resistance to addressing global climate change. In: Political Research Quarterly, 66 (2), pp. 267-279, 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Crowe, Jessica (2013): Transforming Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours through Eco-spirituality and Religion. In: International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 3 (1), 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: focus groups, survey, USA)
Vavricka, Brooke; Myers, Monika (2013): Who's Responsible? Personal Beliefs, Civic Engagment And Environmental Attitudes. 2013, ISBN: 9781303006845. (Type: Unpublished | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey, USA)
McKelvie, Loni (2013): The emerging church movement: an exploratory case study of its environmental and political attitudes. 2013. (Type: PhD Thesis | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Danielsen, Sabrina (2013): Fracturing Over Creation Care? Shifting Environmental Beliefs Among Evangelicals, 1984-2010. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 52 (1), pp. 198-215, 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: documentary analysis, USA)
Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony (2013): American evangelicals and global warming. In: Global Environmental Change, 23 (5), pp. 1009-1017, 2013. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2012

Ellingson, Stephen; Woodley, Vernon; Paik, Anthony (2012): The structure of religious environmentalism: Movement organizations, interorganizational networks, and collective action. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51 (2), pp. 266-285, 2012. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Wilkinson, Katharine (2012): Between God and green : how evangelicals are cultivating a middle ground on climate change. Oxford University Press, New York, 2012, ISBN: 9780199895892. (Type: Book | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Horenstein, Aaron (2012): The Relationship between Religious Attitudes and Concern for the Environment. 2012. (Type: Unpublished | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey, USA)

2010

Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Smith, (2010): Climate change in the American Mind: Americans global warming beliefs and attitudes in January 2010. New Haven: CT. Yale Project on Climate Change 2010. (Type: Technical Report | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Wilkinson, Katherine (2010): Climate's Salvation? Why and How American Evangelicals are Engaging with Climate Change. In: Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 52 (2), pp. 47-57, 2010. (Type: Journal Article | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2009

Smith, Angela; Pulver, Simone (2009): Ethics-Based environmentalism in practice: Religious-environmental organizations in the United States. In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology, 13 (2), pp. 145-179, 2009. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Djupe, Paul; Gilbert, Christopher (2009): The political influence of churches. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York, 2009, ISBN: 9780521692199. (Type: Book | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward; Roser-Renouf, Connie (2009): Climate change in the American mind: Americans’ climate change beliefs, attitudes, policy preferences, and actions. 2009. (Type: Technical Report | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Djupe, Paul; Hunt, Patrick Kieran (2009): Beyond the Lynn White Thesis: Congregational Effects on Environmental Concern. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 48 (4), pp. 670-686, 2009, ISSN: 00218294. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2008

Hagevi, Magnus (2008): Religiositet och milj"oopinion i Sverige och USA. In: Statsvetenskaplig tidskrift, 110 (3), 2008. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Sweden, USA)

2007

, (2007): The U.S. Religious Landscapes Survey. Pew Research Center 2007. (Type: Technical Report | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Taylor, Sarah McFarland (2007): Green sisters: a spiritual ecology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2007, ISBN: 0674034953. (Type: Book | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Hitzhusen, Gregory (2007): Judeo-Christian theology and the environment: moving beyond scepticism to new sources for environmental education in the United States. In: Environmental Education Research, 13 (1), pp. 55-74, 2007. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Sherkat, Darren; Ellison, Christopher (2007): Structuring the Religion-Environment Connection: Identifying Religious Influences on Environmental Concern and Activism. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46 (1), pp. 71-85, 2007, ISSN: 00218294. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey, USA)

2006

DeWitt, Cal (2006): The Scientist and the Shepherd: The Emergence of Evangelical Environmentalism. In: Gottlieb, Roger (Ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Ecology, pp. 568-587, Oxford University Press, 2006. (Type: Incollection | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2005

Hunter, Lori; Toney, Michael (2005): Religion and attitudes toward the environment: A comparison of Mormons and the general US population. In: The Social science journal, 42 (1), pp. 25-38, 2005. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

2002

Gardner, (2002): Invoking the Spirit: Religion and Sustainability in the Quest for a Sustainable World. 2002, (Worldwatch Paper #164). (Type: Unpublished | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Weaver, Alicia (2002): Determinants of Environmental Attitudes. In: International Journal of Sociology, 32 (1), 2002, ISSN: 0020-7659. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Germany, ISSP, Japan, Russia, UK, USA)

2000

Schultz, Wesley; Zelezny, Lynnette; Dalrymple, Nancy (2000): A Multinational Perspective on the Relation between Judeo-Christian Religious Beliefs and Attitudes of Environmental Concern. In: Environment and Behavior, 32 (4), pp. 576-591, 2000. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, NEP, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Spain, trans-national, USA, Venezuela)
Hayes, Bernadette; Marangudakis, Manussos (2000): Religion and Environmental Issues within Anglo-American Democracies. In: Review of Religious Research, 42 (2), pp. 159-174, 2000, ISSN: 0034673X. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Canada, ISSP Environment survey, New Zealand, UK, USA)

1999

Brinkerhoff, Merlin; Jacob, Jeffrey (1999): Mindfulness and quasi-religious meaning systems: An empirical exploration within the context of ecological sustainability and deep ecology. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38 (4), pp. 524-542, 1999. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: mail-in questionnaire, USA)
Boyd, Heather Hartwig (1999): Christianity and the Environment in the American Public. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38 (1), pp. 36-44, 1999, ISSN: 00218294. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey (1993), USA)

1998

Botvar, Paal Ketil (1998): Gud og grønne skoger: en undersøkelse av sammenhenger mellom religiøsitet og miljøvernengasjement. Tapir Forlag, 1998. (Type: Book | BibTeX | Tags: Norway, trans-national, USA)
Bloch, Jon (1998): Alternative spirituality and environmentalism. In: Review of Religious Research, 40 (1), pp. 55-73, 1998. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: in-depth interviews, USA)
Taylor, Bron (1998): Religion, violence and radical environmentalism: From earth first! To the Unabomber to the earth liberation front. In: Terrorism and Political Violence, 10 (4), pp. 1-42, 1998. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

1997

Woodrum, Eric; Wolkomir, Michelle (1997): Religious Effects on Environmentalism. In: Sociological Spectrum, 17 (2), 1997. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey (1993), USA)
Kearns, Laurel (1997): Noah's ark goes to Washington: A profile of evangelical environmentalism. In: Social compass, 44 (3), pp. 349-366, 1997. (Type: Journal Article | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Stoll, Mark (1997): Protestantism, capitalism, and nature in America. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1997, ISBN: 0826317812. (Type: Book | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Wolkomir, Michelle; Futreal, Michael; Woodrum, Eric; Hoban, Thomas (1997): Denominational Subcultures of Environmentalism. In: Review of Religious Research, 38 (4), pp. 325-343, 1997, ISSN: 0034673X. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: telephone survey, USA)
Wolkomir, Michelle; Futreal, Michael; Woodrum, Eric; Hoban, Thomas (1997): Substantive Religious Belief and Environmentalism.. In: Social Science Quarterly, 78 (1), pp. 96-108, 1997, ISSN: 0038-4941. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: survey, USA)

1996

Woodrum, Eric; Davison, Beth (1996): Images of god and environmentalism. In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 7 , pp. 75-96, 1996. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey (1993), USA)
Eckberg, Douglas Lee; Blocker, Jean (1996): Christianity, Environmentalism, and the Theoretical Problem of Fundamentalism. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 35 (4), pp. 343-355, 1996, ISSN: 00218294. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey (1993), USA)

1995

Kempton, Willett (1995): Environmental values in American culture. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1995. (Type: Book | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Guth, James; Green, John; Kellstedt, Lyman; Smidt, Corwin (1995): Faith and the Environment: Religious Beliefs and Attitudes on Environmental Policy. In: American Journal of Political Science, 39 (2), pp. 364-382, 1995, ISSN: 00925853. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Kanagy, Conrad; Nelsen, Hart (1995): Religion and Environmental Concern: Challenging the Dominant Assumptions. In: Review of Religious Research, 37 (1), pp. 33-45, 1995, ISSN: 0034673X. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Gallup Survey, USA)

1994

Thompson, Suzanne Gagnon; Barton, Michelle (1994): Ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. In: Journal of environmental psychology, 14 (2), pp. 149-157, 1994. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

1993

Guth, James; Kellstedt, Lyman; Smidt, Corwin; Green, John (1993): Theological perspectives and environmentalism among religious activists. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 32 (4), pp. 373-382, 1993. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)
Greeley, Andrew (1993): Religion and Attitudes toward the Environment. In: Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 32 (1), pp. 19-28, 1993, ISSN: 00218294. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Social Survey (1988), USA)

1990

Albanese, Catherine (1990): Nature religion in America : from the Algonkian Indians to the New Age. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1990, ISBN: 9780226011462. (Type: Book | BibTeX | Tags: USA)

1987

Shaiko, Ronald (1987): Religion, politics, and environmental concern: A powerful mix of passions. In: Social Science Quarterly, 68 (2), pp. 244-262, 1987. (Type: Journal Article | Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: USA)